Employee satisfaction denotes what people feel about the work that they do. It denotes the extent of fulfillment of a person with all the work-life dimensions. Employee satisfaction tries to measure as also highlight the employees’ needs and desire fulfillment. It also reflects how the same is being perceived by them. Satisfaction is representative of personnel’s thoughts and emotions. It denotes a condition characterized by emotional and psychological tranquility of employees vis-a-vis job and the working conditions. People usually show a favourable predisposition about their work, i.e. show satisfaction, when certain parameters are fulfilled. In today’s complex, competitive, and aggressive trade scenario, the satisfied staff is categorized as a prized possession. They are more committed and motivated towards their workplace and work.
Factors of Employee Satisfaction:
Various contributing factors interplay with one another and change the feelings of satisfaction as discerned by the employees. They are described as below. :
1. Management Factors:
Management factors significantly impact employee satisfaction. An employee, satisfied with his immediate senior and also his higher management has an increased tendency to experience overall satisfaction also. Numerous dimensions of satisfaction with higher management have come up after investigation. These are: empathizing with employees’ situations, problems and understanding their expectations; being attentive to employees’ suggestions when taking decisions, demonstrating an acute interest towards the solution of the employees’ problems, and being easily accessible by them. The managers – both immediate and higher – should value the employees’ contributions and let them be appreciated, heard, and cared about. The various management factors are listed here.
i. Colleague/ Peer Group: A healthy level of interaction, support, mutual cooperation, and also competition contribute a lot in building a trusting and friendly relation between employees. They feel satisfied when working with peers is a comfortable, stimulating, and pleasurable experience. The presence of technically proficient fellow workers amounts to people’s satisfaction. An element of a healthy competitive environment becomes the motivating agent to the personnel. Thus, an employee’s satisfaction vis-a-vis his peer group should be contemplated as a factor to determine general employee satisfaction.
ii. Social Environment: The company culture or climate is described here as a social environment. It relates to the presence of an open communication channel, awareness of employees’ perseverance and dedication, consistency in superiors’ feedback, impartiality, job stability, and smoothening the work-life balance. Communication, mainly superior-subordinate communication essentially acts as both-way traffic. So inputs may be given through both the boss and juniors, according to expectations of the circumstances, while giving proper emphasis to feedback all along. The communication may be both verbal or non — verbal, like facial expressions, eye contact, and body movement. The adequate and effective communication channel between superior and subordinates enhances the interpersonal involvement that positively impacts the employees’ feelings of satisfaction. Again employees experience satisfaction when bestowed with a proper recognition program from a perfectly accomplished work. The recognition can be praise, points, gifts, or substantial financial incentives. Thus, the presence of consistency is necessary. Consistency means predictability, a situation where subordinates are assured of facing similar responses under familiar circumstances. This will give a clear message to the subordinates regarding the exact quality of behaviour they can expect from leaders. This in turn ensures satisfaction. Assurances provided to staff proclaim that only their performances would determine the rewards or their absence. As such, both the amount and the standard of their performances will strictly be the parameters based on which employees would be evaluated. Such a scenario results in satisfaction of employees.
iii. Compensation: Compensation defines the total monetary and non-financial payoffs and assistance that employees accrue from the company. This must be impartial and proportionate with the efforts that the people expend to bring in satisfaction. The salary should be comparable — both with others performing analogous activities in that particular organization and also with others doing jobs of the same nature in different organizations in the equivalent industries.
iv. Job-Related Factors: The nature of a particular job may result in satisfaction. Employees prefer work which challenges them and makes utilization of all of their potentialities. If the workforce may be convinced, that their exercises at the organization are indispensable to the regularized and unhindered activity of the organization, they feel contented. As such, the outlined factors impact upon employee satisfaction: Job design, Task identity, Recognition, and Responsibility. Also secured work environments, where employees are assured of retaining their jobs make them contented. Employees feel satisfied if they can harmonize their professional challenges and personal commitments.
v. Leadership Styles: Satisfaction is enhanced in presence of a democratic or participative kind of leadership. This is because in this style people partake joyfully in taking decisions and fixing their own goals. Employee feelings and recommendations are thought about, during important decisions. A two-way open communication channel among all members is a marked feature of this style. These lead to friendship, warmth, and common respect of boss and subordinates for each other. The result is satisfied employees.
vi. Human Resource Policies: It is seen that employees derive satisfaction from working in organizations that utilize Human Resource best practices-performance linked promotion policies, career planning, and development, succession planning, employee recognition programs, and also timely training schedule and management development program. When organizations base their promotion policies on the fair and just appraisal of the employees’ performances, then employees’ satisfaction increases. Promotions enhance employees’ ideas regarding the job that they do and also increase both satisfaction and commitment. Organizations which boast of an active and dynamic career planning program conveniently connect the people with them as an integrated whole unit with congruent goals. Employees express solidarity with organizational objectives. This brings in employee satisfaction. Again when they have sufficient scope for expertise improvement through legitimate preparing and advancement, they feel upbeat. If employees realize the avenues open to them to arrive at the top echelons of the management hierarchy on the merit of hard work and devotion, then their satisfaction quotient automatically enhances.
2. Individual Factors:
Various physiological demographics affect employee satisfaction, like personality, expectation level, and educational qualifications.
i. Personality: Personality is described as a fixed number of physical and mental features that find resonance through a person’s looks, thoughts, emotions, and behaviours. This is related to job satisfaction. The presence of positive affectivity factors and factors of adverse affectivity are the highlights of personality. Positive affectivity is linked with extraversion personality traits. Negative affectivity relates to the personality trait of neuroticism. Employees who possess elevated affirmative affectivity are additionally better-satisfied individuals, while those with an enhanced level of negative affectivity seem to be dissatisfied.
ii. Level of expectations: Level of expectations are linked with feelings of satisfaction. When expectations are low, but the output received is high, then they become satisfied. Again people with high expectations become dissatisfied when they receive low output. 3. Educational qualifications Research studies assert that employees having higher qualifications are better satisfied as contrasted with their less qualified counterparts. Better education brings in more eligibility for higher posts with enhanced responsibility. This fosters satisfaction. Also, the intellectual, cognitive, and physical capability enhances employees’ satisfaction. Employees with expanded levels of skill and expertise are better poised to accomplish institutional objectives and results, which will in effect increase their satisfaction.
3. Psychological Factors:
Emotions, locus of control, alienation, family, and culture all impact employee satisfaction. Emotions are generally short-lived, intense, psychological states with a clear-cut causal factor. Unpleasant emotions decrease employee satisfaction even when suppressed. Positive emotions amplify the same. Those with intrinsic locus of control, experience less alienation. It is reasoned that additionally, they have an enhanced experience of job contentment than those people who place their locus of control externally. The latter group also complains of more alienation at the workplace. Again, family, network, and culture constitute a major portion of ‘overall effective individuals’ psychological functioning’. 30 An employees’ psychological well-being affects both his performance and satisfaction.
For citing this article use:
- Ghosh, A. (2020). Employee Empowerment and Employee Satisfaction An Empirical Study on Banking Sector in West Bengal.