An educational institution performs a significant function of providing learning experiences to lead the students from the darkness of ignorance to the light of knowledge. The key personnel in the institutions who play an important role to bring about this transformation are teachers. As stated by NCTE (1998), in Quality Concerns in Secondary Teacher Education, the teacher is the most important element in any educational program. It is the teacher who is mainly responsible for the implementation of the educational process at any stage. This shows that it is imperative to invest in the preparation of teachers so that the future of a nation is secure. The importance of competent teachers to the nation‘s school system can in no way be overemphasized. The National Curriculum Framework (2005), places demands and expectations on the teacher, which need to be addressed by both initial and continuing teacher education primarily by teacher competence, sensitivity, and teacher motivation. Teacher education is a programme that is related to the development of teacher proficiency and competence that would enable and empower the teacher to meet the requirements of the profession and face the challenges therein.
Teaching skills would include providing training and practice in the different techniques, approaches, and strategies that would help the teachers to plan and impart instruction, provide appropriate reinforcement and conduct effective assessment. It includes effective classroom management skills, preparation, and use of instructional materials and communication skills.
The pedagogical skills include the philosophical, sociological, and psychological considerations that would enable the teachers to have a sound basis for practicing the teaching skills in the classroom. The theory is stage-specific and is based on the needs and requirements that are characteristic of that stage.
Teacher professional skills include the techniques, strategies, and approaches that would help teachers to grow in the profession and also work towards the growth of the profession. It includes soft skills, counseling skills, interpersonal skills, computer skills, information retrieving, management skills, and above all lifelong learning skills.
An amalgamation of teaching skills, pedagogical theory, and professional skills would serve to create the right knowledge, attitude, and skills in teachers, thus promoting holistic development.
Nature of Teacher Education1
- Teacher education is a continuous process, and its pre-service and in-service components are complimentary to each other. According to the International Encyclopedia of Teaching and Teacher Education (1987), teacher education can be considered in three phases: Pre-service, Induction, and In-service. The three phases are considered as parts of a continuous process.
- Teacher education is based on the theory that teachers are made, not born in contrary to the assumption, teachers are born, not made. Since teaching is considered an art and a science, the teacher has to acquire not only knowledge but also skills that are called -tricks of the trade.
- Teacher education is broad and comprehensive. Besides pre-service and in-service programmes for teachers, it is meant to be involved in various community programmes and extension activities, viz adult education and nonformal education programmes, literacy and development activities of the society.
- It is ever-evolving and dynamic. In order to prepare teachers who are competent to face the challenges of the dynamic society, teacher education has to keep abreast of recent developments and trends.
- The crux of the entire process of teacher education lies in its curriculum, design, structure, organization and transaction modes, as well as the extent of its appropriateness.
- As in other professional education programmes, the teacher education curriculum has a knowledge base which is sensitive to the needs of field applications and comprises meaningful, conceptual blending of theoretical understanding available in several cognate disciplines. However, the knowledge base in teacher education does not comprise only an admixture of concepts and principles from other disciplines, but a distinct gestalt ‘emerging from the conceptual blending’, making it sufficiently specified.
- Teacher education has become differentiated into stage-specific programmes. This suggests that the knowledge base is adequately specialized and diversified across stages, which should be utilized for developing effective processes of preparing entrant teachers for the functions which a teacher is expected to perform at each stage.
- It is a system that involves an interdependence of its inputs, processes and outputs.
Importance of Teacher Education1
The National Policy on Education (1986), states that “the status of the teachers reflects the social cultural ethos of a society; it is said that no people can raise above the level of its teacher”
The role of present generation teacher is having its own complexities to act as a regulator amongst the gush of knowledge resources.
The role of modern teacher is something different. They are varied and diversified. Previously, he was considered as a transmitter of knowledge. But now he is considered as a changing agent, catalyzing the technological storm taking place in the globalized educational scenario.
In order to perpetuate the organized system of society, teacher education molds the suitable persons as expected by the society to nurture the young minds as teachers. The strength of an educational system largely depends on the quality of its teachers.
It is high time to have a class of teachers who are well-prepared academically, trained professionally, and can sustain the formidable task of nation-building with confidence. These teachers must also posses an experimental attitude with wholesome philosophy of education which calls for innovative approaches to prepare teachers at all levels. These teachers must be able to comprehend with the recent developments regarding the application of technology in the educative process of learners.
Objectives of Teacher Education2
A teacher serving in our society would have more responsibility to moulding the students with good behavioural attitude and make the better understanding in the subject and addition to that the teacher can look the students with different attitudes and dimensions. If any misconception found from them and that should be modified by teacher in all stages. The following main objectives that are suggested for all stages of teacher education course
- a. To develop the following qualities among the learners such as human values non-violence, truthfulness, self-discipline, self-reliance, dignity of labour etc.
- b. The teacher to act as a social agent for transmitting the information and other things among the students in school
- c. The teacher in the school and community and employ suitable ways and means of integrating community life for the students benefit.
- d. Teacher should possess warm and positive attitude towards growing children and their academic, social, emotional and personal problems and skills, to guide and counsel them in proper way.
- e. The teacher can develop an understanding of the objectives of school education and awareness of the role of the school in achieving the goals of building up a democratic, secular and socialistic society in India.
- f. Teacher can develop understanding, interests, attitudes and skills among students and help them to develop all round growth
- g. Teacher can develop his/her competency to teach on the basis of the accepted principles of learning for the learners.
- h. Teacher can develop the communication and psychomotor skills and abilities among learners to promote the human relations for interacting with the children in order to promote learning inside and outside the classroom.
Functions of Teacher Education2
Teacher education must have relevance to personal and social life and also to the needs and aspirations of the people. It is essential that teacher education should comprise an understanding of the new educational and social ideology inspiring the new system of education, combined with enthusiasm and a will for working it successfully.
Any good teacher educator should prepare teachers who are sensitive and alive to the conditions for the proper growth of children. Therefore, teachers should not only understand theory of teaching, but also the mode of putting it into practice in their day-to-day work. This means that both theory and practice have an important place in teacher education.
Student teacher should be provided with actual experiences in the community to help them to develop their enquiry mind and problem solving facility. This will enable them to develop their communication and practical skills in serving the community.
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- Jai Ganesh, B. (2018). A study on internet awareness internet attitude and internet browsing behaviour among b ed trainees in the colleges of education in Namakkal district Tamil Nadu.
- Sevarkodiyon, A. (2019). Effect of self regulation strategies in enhancing teaching competency among diet students.